1) A single-genotype beech genome sequence will be obtained and aligned to a high density gene-based linkage map to get 12 pseudo-molecules matching haploid chromosome number.
(2) >1800 trees from 70 wild forests will be resequenced. DNA variants and epivariants associated to ecological (incl. biotic) gradients (i.e. adaptive variants) and phenotypes will be sought.
(3) 20 trees, undergoing drought/flooding stress in controlled conditions, will be RNAseq-ed to analyse gene expression variation.